P2P 2019 – THE TEST


Can a light source (horizontal to the ground and 1 metre above tide level), be observed 15.3 km away over the sea in the evening, by a camera (horizontal to the ground and 1 metre above tide level)?


Will the lasers and torches be observed ?

If the weather is clear, the two outcomes of this experiment are:


The curvature of the sea will prevent the observer (1 metre above tide level & horizontal to the ground) from viewing the source of the laser (the intense centre spot of the laser) that is 15.3 km away and at a distance of 1 metre above tide level (horizontal to the ground).


Either the empirical weather data (temperature and relative humidity) proves that the conditions are present for the beams to refract (change direction) in a downward direction allowing it to be observed….


…the laser beam is not being refracted in a downward direction and the sea between Brighton and Worthing is not exhibiting the expected profile.

Empirical Science and Scientism

This experiment and its conclusions will be based on empirical evidence.

Empirical evidence is information acquired by observation or experimentation. This data is recorded and then analysed, which is a central part of the scientific method.

In science, empirical evidence is required for a hypothesis/proposition to gain acceptance in the scientific community.

Scientism has a few definitions.  The relevant one in this situation is:  The improper usage of science or scientific claims.

This means making a scientific sounding statement where there isn’t empirical evidence to justify such a statement.

It also includes an excessive deference to the claims of scientists or an uncritical eagerness to accept any result described as scientific.

Only objective, empirical data that has been collected during the experiment (from a scientifically sound method) will be used to form the conclusions based on known scientific principles.

Anything that is not empirical science (recorded data from the application of the scientific method) is hearsay and scientism and will not be included.

What can happen to a light beam as it travels

This section will cover how a beam of light can travel 15.3 km over the surface of the sea, in the evening, under normal, everyday, non-specialised conditions.

The science of the refraction of a beam of light will be discussed.


1)  the light will be referred to as a “beam”, rather than a “ray”.

2)  “under normal, everyday, non-specialised conditions” means the average weather conditions for the South Coast of England in the evening during the winter months.

For this observation we will be using the www.metabunk.org calculator.

The distance is 15.4 km and the height of the camera will be 1 metre.

The three diagrams and their associated numbers clearly indicate that whether the beam of light is travelling in a straight line or being refracted in an upward or downward direction, the profile of the sea should prevent the observer from viewing the light source.

If the light source can be observed this leads to two possibilities:


The course of the beam of light between Brighton and Worthing is not as expected.



The profile of the sea between Brighton and Worthing is not as expected.

The recorded empirical evidence and the known scientific principles of the interaction of light with matter will be applied to determine whether possibility 1 or 2, or a combination of both is resulting in the observation of the light source 15.3 m away, over the sea, in the evening.